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Specializations in Medicine


The increasing complicated lifestyles giving birth to a variety of ailments have made it impossible for General Physicians with an MBBS degree to handle all ailments. It is here that specialization in a particular branch of medicine becomes a necessity. The major Specializations include General Medicine, General Surgery, Pediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat), Psychiatry, Anesthesiology etc. There is also Super Specializations which require a further 3-5 years of study in areas such as Plastic Surgery, Neurosurgery, Cardio-thoracic surgery, Conito-urinary surgery, Pediatric Surgery, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Clinical Hematology.

Some of the common areas of specialization in Medicine and Surgery are:-

 General  Practitioner or  Physician He diagnosis and treats the every day and sundry ailments of the human body. MBBS holders practice as physicians.
 General Surgeon Is one who specializes in surgery for all organs of the body. He can further specialise in specific areas. Duties involve examining the patient to determine the extent and nature of injury, treatment through operation and giving post operative care. Surgery is of various types Orthopaedic, Plastic, Neuro etc.
 Anesthetist or  Anesthesiologists Administers anesthetics to a patient undergoing surgical operation according to the nature of operation. It is he who makes the surgical procedure as painless as possible. His duties involve examining the patient to determine his capacity to withstand shock of operation and anesthesia. He/she has huge responsibility and has to be present throughout the operation.
 Psychiatrist Diagnoses and treats mental disorders. Psychiatry has two major branches: The first is psychotherapy, the application of psychological techniques to the treatment of mental illnesses. This branch uses non-drug therapies and will not use physical techniques such as drugs or surgery. The second branch is psychiatry, where medical therapies are used. After diagnosing physical and behavioural symptoms, drugs and other means may be used for treatment.
 Neurologist Diagnosis and treats diseases related to brain and nervous system. They also specialise in Neuro-surgery.
 Pediatrician Treats newborn babies and children.
 Ophthalmologist  or Eye Specialist Treats diseases and disorders of eyes.
 Pathologist Investigate the cause of various diseases and the possibilities for their prevention. His duties involve conducting chemical, microscopic and bacteriological test in labs and examining blood, tissues, urine etc. to find out the cause for disease.
 Cardiologist Also called as heart specialist. Treats diseases related to heart and circulatory system.
 Gynecologist-  Obstetrician Diagnosis and treats diseases and disorders of human female reproduction system. They care for pregnant women from conception through delivery.
 Dermatologist One who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems.
 Orthopedist Deals with diseases connected to skeletal system. Orthopedics is that branch of medicine that deals with the correction of deformities and prevention of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, all bones and bony tissue.
 Gastroenterologist Treats diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder.
 Radiologist Diagnosis diseases and disorders by studying X-ray pictures of affected parts and gives treatment such as therapeutic radiation to affected parts of the body.
 ENT specialist Treats disorders of ear, nose and throat
 Tuberculosis  Specialist Treats ailments due to infection by tubercular disease.
 Venereologist Treats venereal or sexual diseases.
 Bacteriologist Also called Microbiologist. Conducts research and laboratory experiments on occurrence, growth, development, control and utilization of bacteria and other micro-organisms.
 Physiologist Studies normal functioning of different organs and tissues of human body and investigates effects of physical environments such as variations in altitude, speed, temperature etc on its vital functions.
 Nutritionist Gives instructions regarding food values and utilization of foods in human body to keep it healthy and control diseases. He prescribes diet for various diseases.
 Chiropodist Also called pedicurist, treats foot diseases and abnormalities. He treats corns, blisters etc using surgical instruments.


BDS stands for Bachelor of Dental Surgery. In India BDS degree is awarded at the successful completion of four years of study and one year of internship to the students as per the old regulations of Dental council of India. According to new regulations, the BDS course comprises of five years with no internship period. Post graduate courses (Master of Dental Surgery. MDS) are also available in different specialties. It requires 3 years of study after BDS.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, the maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures, and their impact on the human body. While pursuing the course, one learns about different aspects of Dental Science, which includes various forms of treatment including surgical procedures. Dental materials, Dental anatomy & Oral histology, Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry, Pedodontics, Oral Medicine & Radiology are some of the topics that are generally taught.

After pursuing BDS course, one can work as dentist in government or private hospitals or open up his/her own clinic, to serve the society.

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